Explain the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility Economics

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As you eat more slices of pizza, the satisfaction you derive from each additional slice will decrease. You may still enjoy the second slice of pizza, but not as much as the first one. The third slice of pizza may not be as enjoyable as the second one, and so on. Eventually, you may become full, and the satisfaction you derive from each additional slice of pizza will become negative. Utility refers to the satisfaction or value that an individual derives from consuming a good or service.

The third classification of human wants is known as luxuries. This category includes the goods and services that are essential for the pleasures of a human in society. Human wants bring acceptance and prestige to humans at large. It includes cars, diamond jewellery, an air conditioner, etc.

When the price of a good rises from Rs 20 per unit to Rs 30 per unit, the revenue of the firm producing this good rises from Rs 100 to Rs 300. In this year’s recruitment cycle, a total of 3539 vacancies were released. Willing candidates having the required UP TGT Eligibility Criteria can apply for the exam. This is a golden opportunity for those candidates who want to get into the teaching profession in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

What is ‘Law of diminishing utility’

Therefore he will derive less utility from the second apple. If he continues to take additional apples, the utility derived from the third apple will be less than that of the second one. In this way, the additional utility from the extra units will go on decreasing.

The incremental increase in utility that occurs from the consumption of one more unit is known as marginal utility. “Utility” is an economic phrase that means satisfaction or joy. Subjective value fluctuates most dynamically near zero points and soon levels off as gains accumulate, according to the law of diminishing marginal utility. The concave curvature of most subjective utility functions reflects this. Marginal utility is the additional satisfaction or value that a person derives from consuming one additional unit of a good or service.


It is the point of Satiety i.e. the want is completely satisfied and its intensity is nil. With the 7th unit of consumption the total utility started falling and the Marginal Utility becomes negative. Overall, the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility explains why individuals tend to consume less of a good as the marginal utility of each additional unit consumed decreases over time. The diminishing marginal utility also explains why a customer chooses to buy a product or service. If each new unit of a product had the same worth as the first, a consumer might theoretically spend all of their money on as much of that commodity as feasible. The difference in overall pleasure that results from consuming more of a product is known as marginal utility.

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The Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility can be explained using the following example. Let’s say that you are hungry, and you buy a slice of pizza. The first slice of pizza will give you a high level of satisfaction, and you will enjoy it.

As per the schedule, marginal utility of the second unit is 10. For the consumption of the third unit, the marginal utility falls to 8. Next, for the consumption of the fourth unit, the marginal utility falls to 6 and so on. For the consumption of the 7th unit the marginal utility turns to negative and for the 8th unit negative utility increases. Thus, any extra unit beyond six gives disutility rather than positive satisfaction.


The Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility may not apply to addictive substances or hobbies, as the marginal utility of each additional unit may not decrease for an addict or enthusiast. Each person will place a different value on a product or service. Consider utility as a theoretical tool used by economists to investigate the worth and advantages that various products and services provided to customers. The incremental gain in utility that follows from the consumption of one more unit is known as marginal utility. The phrase “utility” is an economic term for “satisfaction” or “happiness.” The law of demand states that other factors being constant , price and quantity demand of any good and service are inversely related to each other.

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Besides giving the explanation of What is the law of diminishing marginal utility? Has been provided alongside types of What is the law of diminishing marginal utility? Theory, EduRev gives you an ample number of questions to practice What is the law of diminishing marginal utility? X- Axisrepresents units of consumption and Y-Axisrepresents Marginal Utility. Join those points we can get a curve known as Marginal utility curve. It is observed from the diagram that at 6th unit of consumption the marginal utility becomes zero, when the total utility becomes maximum.

We can briefly explain Marshall’s theory with the help of an example. Assume that a consumer consumes 6 apples one after another. When he consumes the second and third apple, the marginal utility of each additional apple will be lesser. This is because with an increase in the consumption of apples, his desire to consume more apples falls. The law of diminishing Marginal utility states that s the number of units consumed of commodity increases, the marginal utility of that commodity diminishes.

Assumptions of the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility

The law can help firms to make production decisions, as it can help them to understand how much of a particular good or service consumers are likely to demand at different price points. It helps to explain why people are willing to pay more for the first unit of a good or service than for subsequent units. This is because the first unit provides a greater level of utility or satisfaction to the person, while the second unit provides a lower level of utility. As it becomes fully undesirable to consume another unit of any product, the marginal utility may decline to negative utility.

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Set goals – It has been observed that if you have a plan both short term and long term it is easier to save money. Think of the product for which you are saving, consider the pricing and distribute your savings plan on a monthly basis. In such a case, the utility may not be measured accurately. Utility is the capacity of a commodity through which human wants are satisfied.

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In this situation, consuming cake provides you with no marginal benefit. The sum of all the benefits a consumer receives from utilizing a product or service is referred to as total utility. Income and wealth have diminishing marginal utility, implying that as income rises, individuals enjoy a proportionately lesser increase in contentment and pleasure. Explain the condition of consumer’s equilibrium with the help of utility analysis. It is the additional utility, consumer arising from the consumption of one more unit of a commodity. According to the Law, a consumer should consume successive units of the same good continuously.

As long as the marginal utility is positive, the total utility increases. When MU becomes zero, the TU remains constant shown by consumption of the 4th unit. After that point, the TU starts declining and MU becomes negative.

  • The schedule shows that with every increase in the units of Consumption, the total utility is increasing.
  • Businesses use the concept to determine the optimal price of their products.
  • Is the change in total utility due to a one-unit change in the level of consumption.
  • The theory also considers money as the means to measure utility.

When marginal utility falls but is positive, total utility increases in a diminishing manner. The law of diminishing marginal utility states that Marginal utility tends to decline as consumption of commodity increases. Gives the utility derived by a person from successive units of consumption of apples.

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The Question and answers have been prepared according to the Commerce exam syllabus. Information about What is the law of diminishing marginal utility? Find important definitions, questions, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for What is the law of diminishing marginal utility?.

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In the actual world, however, customers choose to spend their money on whatever provides the most marginal value at the time. If you drink one soda and get 20 units of the total value, the second soda you drink will be somewhat less valuable , giving you a total value of 35. Units should be consumed in quick succession with minimal breaks in between. Units of commodities consumed should be identical or homogeneous, that is, the same in all respects.

Therefore, we have shown that the utility of apples consumed diminishes with every increase of apple consumed. The law of diminishing marginal utility asserts that, all other things being equal, as consumption rises, the marginal utility gained from each extra unit decreases. Where MU is the marginal utility, ΔTU is the change in total utility, and ΔQ is the change in the quantity consumed. The equation shows that as the quantity consumed increases, the marginal utility decreases. Decreasing marginal utility, for example, can assist explain how the law of demand works. In most economic models of demand, a product’s demand curve has a negative slope, meaning that as its price rises, demand falls, and vice versa.

explain diminishing marginal utility has defined utility as the measure of satisfaction or happiness gained from the purchase of a product or service. The Marginal Utility is Zero when total utility is Maximum and Marginal utility is negative when total utility is falling. The role of the theory of utility in the theory of value was initially examined by Alfred Marshall.

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